Green Revolution in Vietnam and Lessons Learned for the African Countries
For over the past 30 years of economic reforms (Doi moi), Vietnam has gained major achievement in agricultural development. Thanks to the liberalization policy, from a net food-imported country, Vietnam has become among the top exporters of many agricultural products such as rice, coffee, pepper, etc. Millions of people in the rural areas have been lifted out of chronicle poverty and hunger. The face of the rural areas has been progressively changed. Vietnam’s successful efforts in hunger eradication and poverty alleviation were highly appreciated by the donor community, including the development organizations such as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and the United Nations Development Program.
However, at present Vietnam’ agricultural sector has to deal with mounting challenges in its course of further development. Despite the continuous expansion in production volume, the agricultural method in Vietnam is mostly a small-scale, low-tech farming that constrains the crop productivity and generates very low added-value. Emerging factors such as diminution of arable lands due to rapid urbanization, market price fluctuation and severe weather brought by global warming begin to adversely affect agricultural production. New policy measures therefore must be adopted to encourage private investment in agriculture, introduction of new models such as climate-smart or green agriculture, and application of modern technology to increase productivity at the same time creating jobs for millions of agricultural workers and reversing the massive rural–urban migration flux.
Successful experiences of Vietnam in the Green Revolution and its ways of addressing the emerging challenges present meaningful lessons for other developing countries, especially those in Africa, in their efforts of agricultural reforms and development.Keep me informed
Dr. Nguyen Manh Hung
Associate Professor Nguyen Manh Hung is Director General of the Institute for Africa and Middle East Studies. He received the Ph.D from the University of Delaware, USA. His research interest is political economy of development, with the focus on institutional quality and governance. He has been working as consultant for a number of international organizations such as the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Asian Development Bank, the World Bank among other institutions.